Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Biflavone and a Plant Sterol Isolated from Antidesma bunius A Biflavone and a Plant Sterol Isolated from Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. Ivan L. Lawagai,* Suad Naheedb, Mohammed Mosihuzzamanc, Allan, Patrick G. Macabeoadeg, Erickson Paragasefk, Peter Prokschh, Alicia M. Aguinaldoaeg Watchwords: Antidesma, Antidesma bunius, Amentoflavone, Betasitosterol, biflavone, sterols 1. Subject and source Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng. (Euphrbiaceae) Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËbignayÃ¢â¬ is a typical plant found all through the Philippines. The bark is noxious as it contains an alkaloid in this manner, is utilized restoratively. The leaves are acidic and diaphoretic, and, when youthful, these are overflowed with pot-herbs, and utilized by the locals in syphilitic diseases (Quisumbing, 1978). The leaves are sudorific and are utilized in rewarding snakebite in Asia (Morton, 1987). The leaves of Antidesma bunius, ordinarily known as Ã¢â¬Å"bignayÃ¢â¬ , are generally utilized by local Filipinos to control diabetes (Lawag et al., 2012). New leaves were gathered from the slopes of Brgy. Agustin Navarra, Ivisan, Capiz Province in January 2009. The plant was recognized by Asst. Prof. Rosie A. Madulid and a voucher example (USTH 5357) is stored at the UST Herbarium, Botany Laboratory, Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas (UST), Manila, Philippines. 2. Past work Dammara-20, 24-dien-3Ã® ²-ol and friedelin were detached from the stem and leaves of A. bunius (Hui and Sung, 1968). In 2008, Samappito and Butkhup recognized the flavonoids catechin, Procyanidin B1 and Procyanidin B2 from the leafy foods corrosive, quercetin, catechin and epicatechin were additionally distinguished from the products of A. bunius (Santiago et al., 2005). 3. Present investigation 3.1. Extraction and confinement Dried and ground leaves Antidesma bunius (1610 g) were extricated with 80% ethanol to give a green sweet concentrate (240.0 g) which was exposed to vacuum fluid chromatography (VLC) utilizing solvents of expanding extremity beginning with hexane, hexane-dichloromethane (1:1), dichloromethane, dichloromethane - ethyl acetic acid derivation (1:1), ethyl acetic acid derivation, ethyl acetic acid derivation methanol (1:1), and methanol to give seven parts. The fifth portion (4.04 g) was additionally fractionated twice on silica gel stuffed on VLC utilizing solvents of expanding extremity beginning from hexane and completion with methanol giving five divisions each, individually. Division three which was refined twice on silica gel utilizing hexane-dichloromethane (1:1) and hexane-dichloromethane (95:5) outfitted 1 (16.13 mg). Seclusion of 2: the fourth portion (12.34 g) after VLC was chromatographed on silica gel utilizing 5-10% angles of methanol in dichloromethane to give ten divisions. Part three (42.3 mg) was additionally sanitized utilizing Sephadex LH20 utilizing 20% inclinations of methanol in DCM to give 2 (5.9 mg). (1)(2) 3.2. Recognizable proof of refined mixes The mixes were distinguished as Stigmast-5-en-3Ã® ²-ol or Ã ²-sitosterol, a plant sterol, (1) (Balamurugan et al., 2012) and (Sosinska, et al., 2013) and 3,8-biapigenin (Amentoflavone), a biflavone (2) (Chari et al., 1977) and (Ryu et al., 2010) based on their IR, LR-EIMS, LR-ESIMS and NMR (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H Cozy, HMBC and HSQC) phantom information and by examination of spectra reports with the writing. 4. Chemotaxonomic centrality Other Antidesma species like A. menasu (Risvi et al., 1980a), (Risvi et al., 1980b) and A. pentandrum (Chen et al., 2004), (Kikuchi, 1983) are known to contain plant sterols. A. puncticulatum is known to contain flavonoids (Nuengchamnong and Ingkaninan, 2009), while A. laciniatum was accounted for to contain both plant sterols and flavonoids (Tchinda et al., 2006). The confinement procedure that was by and by preformed on the ethanolic leaf concentrate of A. bunius managed mixes 1 and 2 which were cognizant to the aggravates that were recently separated or detailed from the other Antidesma species. In spite of the fact that the said mixes were accounted for the absolute first time in A. bunius, compound 1 was likewise answered to be available in A. pentandrum (Chen et al., 2004) and in A. laciniatum (Tchinda et al., 2006), while compound 2 was accounted for to be available in A. laciniatum (Tchinda et al., 2006). This further builds up the chemotaxonomic relationship of A. bunius towards different types of the sort Antidesma. Despite the fact that plant sterols (Hui and Sung, 1968) and biflavones (Samappito and Butkhup, 2008), (Santiago et al., 2005) were recently revealed in the leaf and bark separates A. bunius, this is the principal report that showed the nearness of Ã ²-sitosterol (1) and Amentoflavone (2). Mixes 1 and 2 thusly indicate the rundown of confined and recognized mixes from the leaves of A. bunius. References Quisumbing, E., 1978. Therapeutic Plants of the Philippines. Katha Publishing Inc., Quezon City, Philippines. Balamurugan, R., Stalin, A. what's more, Ignacimuthu, S., 2012. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 47, 38 Ã¢â¬ 43. Chari, V. M., Ilyas, M., Wagner, H., Neszmelyi, A., Chen, F., Chen, L., Lin, Y., Lin, Y., 1977. Phytochemistry 16, 1273 Ã¢â¬ 1278. Chen, Y.C.; Cheng, M.J.; Lee, S.J.; Dixit, A.K., Ishikawa, T., Tsai, I.L.; Chen, I.S., 2004. Helvetica Chimica Acta 87 (11), 2805 Ã¢â¬ 2811. Hui, W. H.; Sung, M. L., 1968. Australian Journal of Chemistry 21(8), 2137-40. Kikuchi, H., Tensho, A., Shimizu, I., Shiokawa, H., Kuno, A., Yamada, S., Fujiwara, T., Tomita, K., 1983. Science Letters (4), 603 Ã¢â¬606. Lawag, I., Aguinaldo, A., Naheed, S., Mossihuzzaman, M., 2012. Diary of Ethnopharmacology 144(1), 217 Ã¢â¬ 219. Morton, J., 1987. Bignay. p. 210Ã¢â¬212. Products of Warm Climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. Nuengchamnong, N., and Ingkaninan, K., 2010. Food Chemistry 118, 147 Ã¢â¬ 152. Samappito, S.; Butkhup, L., 2008. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 11 (13), 1654 Ã¢â¬ 1661. Santiago, D.M.O., 2005. MS Thesis University of the Philippines, Los Banos. Sosinska, E., Przybylski, R., Hazendonk, P., Zhao, Y. Y., Curtis, J., 2013. Food Chemistry 139, 464 Ã¢â¬ 474. Rizvi, S. H. Shoeb, A. Kapil, R. S. Popli, S. P., 1980. Experientia 36. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel (Schweiz). Rizvi, S., Shoeb, A., Kapil, R., Popli, S., 1980. Phytochemistry 19 (11), 2409 Ã¢â¬ 10. Ryu, Y. B., Jeong, H. J., Kima, J. H., Kima, Y. M., Park, J., Kim, D., Naguyen, T.T.H., Park, S., Chang, J. S., Park, K. H., Rho, M., Lee, W. S., 2010. Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry 18, 7940 Ã¢â¬ 7947. Tchinda, A..; Teshome, A.; Dagne, E.; Arnold, N.; Wessjohann, L., 2006. Notice of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 20 (2), 325 Ã¢â¬ 328. Current Affiliations: iChemistry Department, Adamson University, Ermita, Manila, Philippines. jJinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan kDepartment of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA * Corresponding creator. Email address:*[emailprotected] (I.L. Lawag)
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Blue grass music Essay America has changed radically consistently, music has changed alongside it. Music changed with the occasions and caught those minutes inside them. Music lets us investigate the past and allows us to feel the feelings that were occurring inside those years. America was an autonomous documentation that complied with nobody else and it appeared. We as a country needed to develop and learn all alone and individuals communicated it in the craftsmanship particularly. During the time we have developed radically and the music will consistently advance with us as it appears in the music we tune in to today, even nation itself. In the asking of time music was thought of as just an articulation since it couldn't be appeared to numerous others. In America alone, the styles that we appreciate today, for example, blues, awesome and nation get from the Native Americans who previously strolled this land. For these individuals the music was in different structures and was for the most part in strict purposes. With the appearance of outsiders from changed nations carried various styles with them; alongside a lot of new instruments to play. As the United States united such a significant number of settlers, America joined their own style into the music discussion. The American dream has a lot to do with raising yourself by your own, and that is the thing that American music did in the nineteenth century. The nineteenth century started with for the most part fiddlers, fifers and assemblages while finishing with splendid show houses and the absolute best ensembles around the world. The United States had a variety of multi-ethnic styles and came out the greatest country for assortment of music amusement with the most known artists ever. African Americans contributed the absolute most well known styles we use today, particularly in down home music. Blue grass music has progressed significantly since the asking of time. Blue grass music was made from African American blues with Appalachian society. This type of music began to get well known around the sasss in the country South. From the get-go nation came known as hillbillys music since it took parts of the blues and components of the nineteenth century pop melodies. It began with instruments, for example, the European fiddle and later on included the African banjo, guitar and the Hawaiian ukulele and string guitar. Blue grass music was not broadly enjoyed yet after World War II individuals started to welcome the music and a couple of stars radiated through and shed light on the class. Blue grass Music from that point on developed and ventured into the standard nation we have today. Today America is the most famous nation for creating music and sine we have consolidated and joined such a large number of various styles during the time different nations are asking to admire us and discover impact in our style. Music is utilized as the time-case of our history and will keep on consistently hold critical incentive in light of the fact that the effect of Americas amusement business influences the world and will keep on developing if American artists can relate their music to the occasions and the residents.
Monday, August 17, 2020
Program Assistant Introduction Niara Valerio COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Niara Valerio, 2nd year MPA IFEP GPP student Class has officially started for the 2018-2019 academic year! With this semester, we have a brand new group of program assistants who will be assisting the SIPA Office of Admissions. Well be featuring our new PAs over the next couple of weeks. For todays post, lets give a warm welcome to Niara Valerio! Niara is a current graduate student at Columbia University studying International Finance and Economic Policy with a specialization in Gender and Public Policy. Niara grew up in New York City and completed her undergraduate degree at Harvard University where she studied Economics and Government. Prior to enrolling at SIPA, Niara worked as an Investment Intern at Womenâs World Banking Capital Partners and served as Economic Affairs Adviser to the Permanent Observer Mission of the African Union. Niara has a strong interest in womenâs economic empowerment and hopes to work for either a venture capital or private equity fund after graduation. She recently started her own ed-tech company, Purpose Tutors, which provides test prep and mentorship to underserved students in the South Bronx. Her hope is to gain the experience to one day start her own fund to invest in female and minority led companies. What were you doing before you came to SIPA? I was working as an Economic Affairs Advisor at the Permanent Observer Mission of the African Union to the United Nations. What attracted you to SIPA and Columbia University? I wanted to come to SIPA because I was attracted to all the different course offerings and how international the school is. I was especially interested in the Gender and Public Policy Specialization. My focus is on Womenâs Economic Empowerment and I wanted to attend a school that allowed me to pursue my interests in both finance and gender. Have you taken classes at other Columbia Schools? Yes, Iâve taken several courses outside of SIPA, I took a class at the Mailman School of Public Health âPublic Health and Abortion Policyâ and one at the Institute for Research in African-American Studies (IRAAS), âGender, Sexuality and Labor in the Caribbean.â I really valued the opportunity to get to know other students and professors within the Columbia community and outside of SIPA. Did you choose to attend SIPA to change careers, or to gain experience in a career path you already had experience in? A little bit of both, I already had some exposure to finance and economics prior to attending SIPA but I wanted to get more experience in Gender and Public Policy. I think SIPA is a great place to blend different interest areas because the course offerings are so diverse. You can really tailor your coursework to suit your own interests. How did you obtain your internship? My internship last year was with Accion EAST in their SBA Lending division, I actually applied via SIPA Link and heard back pretty quickly, I was offered the position on the spot, but I think I was very lucky in that regard, that doesnât usually happen. What has been the best part of your SIPA experience? The people Iâve met for sure! I think SIPA attracts a really dynamic, interesting group of people with unique perspectives; you have the opportunity to be exposed to so many different cultures and backgrounds. I definitely appreciate how much Iâve learned from my classmates. [Photo courtesy of Niara Valerio]
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1674 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Politics Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? In most modern democracies, the governments only powers are those granted to it by a written constitution or by the legislature. A distinguishing feature of the British constitution is the extent to which government continues to exercise a number of powers which were not granted to it by a written constitution, nor by Parliament, but are, rather, ancient prerogatives of the Crown. These powers derive from arrangements which preceded the 1689 Declaration of Rights and have been accumulated by the government without Parliament or the people having a say. (The Governance of Britain, 2007) Explain this statement and assess how the proposals in the Green Paper, The Governance of Britain (2007), will affect the future exercise of the royal prerogative by ministers. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Government Constitution Parliament" essay for you Create order The constitution of a country is a set of rules that regulate the powers of its government and the rights and duties of its citizens. When a government, a group or an individual act within a countrys rules and guidelines, such behaviour is described as Ã¢â¬Ëconstitutional. Likewise, when anyones actions are clearly against such a set of rules, such action is described as Ã¢â¬Ëunconstitutional. Britain is one of a handful of nations that does not have a written or codified constitution. Britains constitutional guidelines are instead said to be unwritten or uncodified. A useful summary of Britains constitutional position can be outlined as follows: Ã¢â¬ËVirtually every country in the world operates its political system within the constraints of a constitution. In most casesÃ¢â¬ ¦..the constitution of the state is a written document which has been agreed on some particular occasionÃ¢â¬ ¦..There are, however, a few countries, including the UK, that operate without such a specifically written constitution. Britains Ã¢â¬Ëuncodified or Ã¢â¬Ëunwritten constitution makes it unusual in global democratic terms. Only a handful of democratic nations, including Israel and New Zealand, have similar constitutional arrangements. Such a constitution is very different from many recently created documents such as the American Constitution, which was established towards the end of the 18th century. Many nations from the former Soviet Union have established new constitutions since becoming independent following the Soviet break-up in 1991. By contrast, Britains constitutional development has been far more evolutionary and almost organic: Ã¢â¬ËThe British constitution grew like a forest, requiring long centuries and fertile earth to flourish and come to maturity. It was not built like a temple, deliberately designed and constructed in a short span of years, as its American equivalent was. The British Constitution has evolved over many decades, but t he year 1689 is seen as key date in its development. That was when the Ã¢â¬ËGlorious Revolution occurred, featuring a civilised settlement of power between Parliament and the Crown following the overthrow of James II, with key powers being given to the parliamentary chamber. However, at the time it was not necessarily seen as a democratic development as few people could actually vote, it was more viewed as a control on the monarch in the wake of the English Civil War (1649-60): Ã¢â¬ËSeventeenth century EnglandÃ¢â¬ ¦..(saw) the victory of parliamentary governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦..over absolute monarchy- the unfettered rule of a royal despotÃ¢â¬ ¦..(However) full democracy was only achieved much later, and most of those who won these early victories for parliamentary government were in fact strongly opposed to it. Subsequently, due to this slow but steady evolution, far from relying on one single document as is the case with the American version, the British Constitution is base d on a series of sources for its sustenance., many of which pre-date 1689. They key source is the central institution of Parliament, which many argue is the cockpit of the British Constitution. All statute law (legislation) which is passed by the British Parliament shapes Britains constitutional development. Likewise, case law such as significant judicial rulings is also very influential. The much-debated Hunting Act of 2004 prohibited fox-hunting in England and Wales and has been subsequently endorsed by judicial review. Such a development criminalised a previously legal pastime, and the Government used the Parliament Act to force the legislation through against House of Lords opposition. Such a tactic appeared to symbolise excessive government and ministerial power. In recent years, EU law has become an increasingly important influence on the UKs constitution, with a high proportion of British laws now originating from Europe and often automatically endorsed by the British P arliament. Other key sources of the British Constitution are authoritative historical documents, such as the definitive guide to Parliaments proceedings by Erskine May or Walter Bagehots Ã¢â¬ËThe English Constitution. On taking office in June 2007, Gordon Brown promised a new style of governing in an attempt to distance himself from some of the most unpopular features of the Blair Years (1997-2007). Such negative features included a perception of authoritarian and quasi-presidential government, where the Prime Minister appeared to make decisions without taking into account wider public opinion, and at times even the views of Parliament appeared to be ignored. This apparent excess of executive power was linked to the concept of constitutional conventions, a further feature of the British Constitution which gives the government significant powers linked to mere custom and tradition. The most prominent example cited for Blairs authoritarian style of government was when Parliame nt voted for Britain to go to war with Iraq in March 2003, despite the fact that there was widespread public hostility to the proposal, dubious legal legitimacy and that 139 MPs from the governing Labour Party voted against such a measure. Only with Conservative support did the motion win parliamentary approval. Brown promised an end to such centralised tendencies where the government appeared to be promoting policies that were out of step with public opinion: We will only meet the new challenges of security, of economic change, of communities under pressure and forge a stronger shared national purpose by building a new relationship between citizens and government that ensures the government is a better servant of the people. Further detail was outlined in the Green Paper, Ã¢â¬ËThe Governance of Britain, launched in June 2007 to coincide with the start of Gordon Browns premiership. This consultation document was an apparent acknowledgement by the new Prime Minister of a wider public feeling that some government powers were excessive and required curbing. Brown even suggested that MPs would always get a genuine say in whether the country went to war or not. This suggestion reflected a common view that the 2003 parliamentary vote on Iraq merely rubber-stamped a decision that had already been taken by Blair and President Bush. Evidence of this includes the following extract from June 2002, almost a year before the war actually began: Ã¢â¬ËTony Blair was pretty clear we had to be with the Americans. He said at one pointÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"I actually believe in doing thisÃ¢â¬ . Blairs ability to effectively commit the country to war was a legacy of the royal prerogative, a key prime ministerial power inherited from the monarch and one of the most powerful weapons of British government ministers throughout the twentieth century. This concept refers to the traditional powers of the formerly autocratic monarch, which over the years have been p assed to government ministers in line with a more ostensibly democratic culture. Such Ã¢â¬Ëautocratic powers are traditionally applied without parliamentary approval and are often used on an ad hoc basis when the need arises. To many constitutional reformers, such a situation is far from satisfactory and has arguably contributed to the excess of prime ministerial power in recent years. Such a degree of power for government ministers, but particularly the prime minister, has been used extensively and is often described as patronage. Browns Green Paper promised a reduction in such patronage, a proposal welcomed by the Constitution Unit, an independent think-tank that specialises in constitutional affairs: Ã¢â¬ËIn several important areas the Green Paper proposes a reduced patronage role for the Prime Minister and other ministers: in judicial, Church of England, and public appointments, and the award of honours. Brown has appeared to acknowledge public cynicism in relation to the way governments make appointments. Going forward, he has pledged to play a much reduced role in appointing judges, bishops and peers, all major weapons in the prime ministers armoury of patronage. Browns promise to make his government Ã¢â¬Å"a better servant of the peopleÃ¢â¬ appears to be an implicit criticism of his predecessors style of governing. Conservative Leader David Cameron has made similar commitments should he win power at the next general election. The Constitution Unit has broadly welcomed Browns emphasis on diluting prime ministerial power and royal prerogative, but it has been keen to stress that many of the powers proposed for parliament were in fact brand new, and not powers that had necessarily been seized by an over-mighty executive in the past: Ã¢â¬ËWe welcome many of the proposals in the Green Paper with respect to parliament. These do not Ã¢â¬Ërestore power to parliament, as was widely reported in the press, but in many cases give power to parliament which it never previously had. We welcome, in particular, the new war powers, the arrangements for greater parliamentary involvement in treaty making and public appointments, the power of recall, and the annual debates on departmental objectives. Gordon Brown appears to have accepted that there has been a constitutional dislocation in the way Britain has been governed in recent years. The key test of his constitutional pledges as outlined in Ã¢â¬ËThe Governance of Britain will be seen in whether he delivers actions that correlate with his bold, reforming words. Ultimately, the principal challenge will be how future British governments apply the somewhat vague workings of the constitution in a more accountable way. Brown has indicated that the powerful tool of royal prerogative in particular will be significantly curtailed, but asking government ministers to actively sacrifice a mighty power could be difficult to achieve in constitutional practice. Bibliography: G.E Aylmer, Ã¢â¬ËThe Struggle for the Constitution (1965) Alastair Campbell, Ã¢â¬ËThe Blair Years (2007) Robert Hazell, Ã¢â¬ËConstitution Unit response to The Governance of Britain (July 2007) https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/files/publications/GovernanceResponse.pdf Peter Hitchens, Ã¢â¬ËThe Abolition of Britain, (1999) Neil McNaughton, Ã¢â¬ËGovernment Politics for A Level, (2nd ed., 2007)
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Internet Censorship Isnt Necessary Fear of chaos cannot justify unwarranted censorship of free speech (Quittner). This quotation came from a speech made by Vice President Al Gore, who was addressing the graduating class of 1996 from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This quotation expresses his viewpoint on this subject of censorship. Censorship has always been an issue in the world. What exactly is censorship? A censor is one who is authorized to examine books, films, or other materials and to remove or suppress what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable. Censorship is the act of removing this questionable material. Understandably, it is illegal to yell fire in a crowded room or useÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This act outlaws obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy or indecent communication on the Internet (Bender). This movement has granted censors the right to pick at the Internet as they please. Unfortunately for society, this act was passed by an admittedly Net-illiterate Congress (Quittner). The problems with the Internet and censorship are caused mainly by the pornographic sites. Parents do not want their children to see smut. To prevent this, many believe that these sites should not be allowed on the Internet. In a society where a photo of a nude, pregnant Demi Moore on the cover of a major magazine is considered acceptable to be seen by millions, it is hard to believe that some of the pictures on the Internet remain unacceptable. Censorship has now found an unwelcome home along the information superhighway. Instead of destroying every site that may appear offensive to some, society needs to look more at preventative measures to stop the viewing of sites by young children and teenagers. This would allow for viewing of these sites by a more mature audience. Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press (First Amendment of the U. S. Constitution). Democracy is based on the idea that only when people are free to express their views openly can they govern themselves effectively (Bender). By not allowing the posting of questionable sites, the Congress is in direct violation of theShow MoreRelatedCensorship Of The World Wide Web1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespowerful tool, and too much of it will make any government nervous. Censorship of information has had a long history throughout the world. In ancient China for example, censorship was considered a legitimate instrument for regulating the moral and political life of the population (Newth). Even today, the Chinese government has full authority to censor anything on the web. Western societies also have a long history of censorship. 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Having such a regulated system causes a great amount of distrust and distaste for the government to form within the population and it is evident throughout US history that most americans do not like anyone telling them what they can and cannot do in their own county. Having a strict system of censorship also creates aRead MoreEverybody Knows Big Porn Is Destroying Relationships Essay855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaddictive practice for some individuals. Censorship plays a major role in the pornography industry, as with any media outlet, it needs to be regulated. It can be defined as the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society (Global Internet Liberty Campaign, 2013). Since the shift of sexual revolution in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s, there are only two sides to viewing the adult industry; you are either for or against it, there are no fence sitters. Censorship laws act to continually defend those whoRead MoreHow Censorship Is Necessary Or Harmful?2561 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages A. Introduction Censorship is a program that has limitations on quite a number of things online. There has always been a sense of divergence with internet users on whether or not censorship is necessary or actually needed. Everyone has their own beliefs. A number of people believe that some things must be censored, while others thinks that everyone must have the freedom to watch anything they wants or search any of the information they want. B. i) Internet growth and evaluation When you come toRead MoreThe Effects Of Internet On The Internet2010 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe internet is more readily available today than it has even been before; Individuals feel that they can implement their freedom of speech right on the internet as they please. This raises concerns about how we can regulate offensive or harmful forms of speech such as pornography, hate speech. The internet has actually created special problems for censoring and posting materials online. In this paper I will discuss the most feasible way of regulating online content, when to draw the line between
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Zhao Meng Cui Buddhism Professor Broughton Mon 6:45pm-9:45pm Ten-Foot-Square Hut The Ten-Foot Square Hut is more of a story book to me rather than any religion related book. Kamo no Chomei describe the arrival of the mappo is complete chaos. First, there is a huge fire broke out on a windy night in the third year of the Angen era(1177) in the capital city. We will write a custom essay sample on Ten-Foot-Square Hut or any similar topic only for you Order Now The fire was spread widely. Houses were torched; people were chocked to death by smoke or burned to death alive. The result of the fire was Ã¢â¬Å"Sixteen mansions of the nobility were consumed by the fire, to say nothing of untold numbers of other dwellings. Fully one third of the capital was destroyed; several thousand men and women perished. Ã¢â¬ Second, there is a huge whirlwind hit the capital again in the Jisho ear(1180). Four or five blocks of the city were destroyed. People lost their house, belongings, and lives. The southwestern area next to the city was damaged as well due to the wind moved that way down. Third, the relocation of the capital and changing in politics. New capital was built in a different location up north in the mountain area by the sea. Kamo no chomei was also noticed the persons that he knew were riding on horses like the warrior clans instead of sitting in ox cart. People were still living in the fear of the fire. Fourth, the hunger comes around the Yowa era (1181-1182). Typhoons and floods destroyed farm lands and grain. It lasted 2 years. Many people were dead and grain were worth more than gold. Fifth, earthquake. Kamo no chomei mentioned the destruction of all temples first time. Last, PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind changed. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s desire of wealth grows. They become greedy. This is the arrival of the mappo to Kamo no Chomei. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like everything that is known to people were destroyed and the old believes were collapsed. Nothing is going to the right direction. Kamo no chomeiÃ¢â¬â¢s hut measures ten feet square in area and less than seven feet in height. The eaves extend out three feet for firewood and cooking on the east side. There is also a bamboo balcony with a book shelf at the western side. He put an image of Amida and bodhisattva fugen on the north wall. His bed is along the east side of the room. He kept his music instruments and other books at the southwest corner. Nembutsu was his Bhuddhist practice. His problem was that he loved his small hut and the simple life style. His small hut help him with practice, but it is still consider as mental grasping. Ã¢â¬Å"Buddha warn us against feelings of attachment. Ã¢â¬ He is still attached to something that would keep him in the samsara. His solutions to his problem are Ã¢â¬Å"call upon my tongue to utter two or three recitations of Amida BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s name, ineffectual as they might be, before falling silent. Ã¢â¬ My understanding is that he would first do more Buddhist practices as mentioned above Ã¢â¬Å"utter two or three recitations of Amida BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s nameÃ¢â¬ ; secondly, easy his mind and meditate as in Ã¢â¬Å"falling silentÃ¢â¬ . How to cite Ten-Foot-Square Hut, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Us vestures Culture plays a very important role in continuing values and norms of society. We know that people are different each other and our society also offers lots of opportunities for people to be creative. These creative people become a cultural subgroup outside the core of the dominant culture and they are called a subculture. A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong.According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word subculture is defined s a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members Of the dominant culture.They are closely linked to ideology and mainstream. We will write a custom essay sample on Subcultures or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Music-based subcultures are particularly vulnerable to this process, and so what may be considered a subculture at one stage in its history may represent mainstream taste within short period of time. Several subcultures flourished and are flourishing today around the world. However, one of the most famous and influential subculture that has impacted UK in terms of beliefs, lifestyle, music, and art, has been Skinheads and Moods.Skinheads (or shaved heads), are members of the subculture that originated in the 1 9605 in the working-class neighborhoods of London, where they were closely attached to the Rude boys and the British Moods. They rejected the youthful counterculture movement and many skinheads were prone to violence, others viewed their picture primarily as an expression of alternative values and communal solidarity and were more interested in parties, concerts, and sporting events than in violence.During the sass and ass the skinhead movement spread to North America, and western Europe, especially Germany. The Skinhead culture had certain elements that distinguished them from others. They dressed themselves with bottom up Fred Perry or Ben Sherman polo shirts, fitted blazer or Herrington Jackets, Tight Levi Jeans and Dry Martins work boots. Alt hough the first skin heads were nonpolitical, many of them were non drawn into extreme nationalist, and especially anti-immigrant, groups. Skinheads expressed their political ideas and also their racism in their music as well as in their street violence. Although many early skinheads favored reggae, later skinhead musical groups produced a variety of punk that focused on street issues. Instead, Mod (this term derives from modernist or modern) is one of the social subculture that originated from London in the late sass. The most important element Of the Mod subculture is fashion. The Moods still need to maintain their perfection of personal style and fashion. They dressed themselves with suits and parka coats.The music associated with MOD culture is Northern soul, Rhythm and Blues and British music including bands such as The Who, The Kinks and The Small Faces. But, the main symbol of Mod culture is the scooter such as the Lambert or the VESA. Many Moods used a scooters for transportation and they treated the vehicle as a fashion accessory. Moods were famed for having never ending conflict with the Rockers, referring to them as greasers. The original mod scene was also associated with amphetamine and all night dancing at clubs.Several subcultures are flourishing today, but when we think of the most of the popular new subculture, I think of Memos. The Memo (this term derives from emotion) subculture consists of youths that express emotions that they can relate to. This subculture started in the mid-1 9805. Memo has been widely associated with a stereotype that includes being particularly emotional, sensitive and shy along with been associated with depression, self-injury, and suicide. Memo is often stereotyped with wearing tight fitted clothes and long hair that covers one or both eyes.