Sunday, May 24, 2020

Government Constitution Parliament - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1674 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Politics Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? In most modern democracies, the governments only powers are those granted to it by a written constitution or by the legislature. A distinguishing feature of the British constitution is the extent to which government continues to exercise a number of powers which were not granted to it by a written constitution, nor by Parliament, but are, rather, ancient prerogatives of the Crown. These powers derive from arrangements which preceded the 1689 Declaration of Rights and have been accumulated by the government without Parliament or the people having a say. (The Governance of Britain, 2007) Explain this statement and assess how the proposals in the Green Paper, The Governance of Britain (2007), will affect the future exercise of the royal prerogative by ministers. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Government Constitution Parliament" essay for you Create order The constitution of a country is a set of rules that regulate the powers of its government and the rights and duties of its citizens. When a government, a group or an individual act within a countrys rules and guidelines, such behaviour is described as ‘constitutional. Likewise, when anyones actions are clearly against such a set of rules, such action is described as ‘unconstitutional. Britain is one of a handful of nations that does not have a written or codified constitution. Britains constitutional guidelines are instead said to be unwritten or uncodified. A useful summary of Britains constitutional position can be outlined as follows: ‘Virtually every country in the world operates its political system within the constraints of a constitution. In most cases†¦..the constitution of the state is a written document which has been agreed on some particular occasion†¦..There are, however, a few countries, including the UK, that operate without such a specifically written constitution. Britains ‘uncodified or ‘unwritten constitution makes it unusual in global democratic terms. Only a handful of democratic nations, including Israel and New Zealand, have similar constitutional arrangements. Such a constitution is very different from many recently created documents such as the American Constitution, which was established towards the end of the 18th century. Many nations from the former Soviet Union have established new constitutions since becoming independent following the Soviet break-up in 1991. By contrast, Britains constitutional development has been far more evolutionary and almost organic: ‘The British constitution grew like a forest, requiring long centuries and fertile earth to flourish and come to maturity. It was not built like a temple, deliberately designed and constructed in a short span of years, as its American equivalent was. The British Constitution has evolved over many decades, but t he year 1689 is seen as key date in its development. That was when the ‘Glorious Revolution occurred, featuring a civilised settlement of power between Parliament and the Crown following the overthrow of James II, with key powers being given to the parliamentary chamber. However, at the time it was not necessarily seen as a democratic development as few people could actually vote, it was more viewed as a control on the monarch in the wake of the English Civil War (1649-60): ‘Seventeenth century England†¦..(saw) the victory of parliamentary government†¦..over absolute monarchy- the unfettered rule of a royal despot†¦..(However) full democracy was only achieved much later, and most of those who won these early victories for parliamentary government were in fact strongly opposed to it. Subsequently, due to this slow but steady evolution, far from relying on one single document as is the case with the American version, the British Constitution is base d on a series of sources for its sustenance., many of which pre-date 1689. They key source is the central institution of Parliament, which many argue is the cockpit of the British Constitution. All statute law (legislation) which is passed by the British Parliament shapes Britains constitutional development. Likewise, case law such as significant judicial rulings is also very influential. The much-debated Hunting Act of 2004 prohibited fox-hunting in England and Wales and has been subsequently endorsed by judicial review. Such a development criminalised a previously legal pastime, and the Government used the Parliament Act to force the legislation through against House of Lords opposition. Such a tactic appeared to symbolise excessive government and ministerial power. In recent years, EU law has become an increasingly important influence on the UKs constitution, with a high proportion of British laws now originating from Europe and often automatically endorsed by the British P arliament. Other key sources of the British Constitution are authoritative historical documents, such as the definitive guide to Parliaments proceedings by Erskine May or Walter Bagehots ‘The English Constitution. On taking office in June 2007, Gordon Brown promised a new style of governing in an attempt to distance himself from some of the most unpopular features of the Blair Years (1997-2007). Such negative features included a perception of authoritarian and quasi-presidential government, where the Prime Minister appeared to make decisions without taking into account wider public opinion, and at times even the views of Parliament appeared to be ignored. This apparent excess of executive power was linked to the concept of constitutional conventions, a further feature of the British Constitution which gives the government significant powers linked to mere custom and tradition. The most prominent example cited for Blairs authoritarian style of government was when Parliame nt voted for Britain to go to war with Iraq in March 2003, despite the fact that there was widespread public hostility to the proposal, dubious legal legitimacy and that 139 MPs from the governing Labour Party voted against such a measure. Only with Conservative support did the motion win parliamentary approval. Brown promised an end to such centralised tendencies where the government appeared to be promoting policies that were out of step with public opinion: We will only meet the new challenges of security, of economic change, of communities under pressure and forge a stronger shared national purpose by building a new relationship between citizens and government that ensures the government is a better servant of the people. Further detail was outlined in the Green Paper, ‘The Governance of Britain, launched in June 2007 to coincide with the start of Gordon Browns premiership. This consultation document was an apparent acknowledgement by the new Prime Minister of a wider public feeling that some government powers were excessive and required curbing. Brown even suggested that MPs would always get a genuine say in whether the country went to war or not. This suggestion reflected a common view that the 2003 parliamentary vote on Iraq merely rubber-stamped a decision that had already been taken by Blair and President Bush. Evidence of this includes the following extract from June 2002, almost a year before the war actually began: ‘Tony Blair was pretty clear we had to be with the Americans. He said at one point†¦. â€Å"I actually believe in doing this†. Blairs ability to effectively commit the country to war was a legacy of the royal prerogative, a key prime ministerial power inherited from the monarch and one of the most powerful weapons of British government ministers throughout the twentieth century. This concept refers to the traditional powers of the formerly autocratic monarch, which over the years have been p assed to government ministers in line with a more ostensibly democratic culture. Such ‘autocratic powers are traditionally applied without parliamentary approval and are often used on an ad hoc basis when the need arises. To many constitutional reformers, such a situation is far from satisfactory and has arguably contributed to the excess of prime ministerial power in recent years. Such a degree of power for government ministers, but particularly the prime minister, has been used extensively and is often described as patronage. Browns Green Paper promised a reduction in such patronage, a proposal welcomed by the Constitution Unit, an independent think-tank that specialises in constitutional affairs: ‘In several important areas the Green Paper proposes a reduced patronage role for the Prime Minister and other ministers: in judicial, Church of England, and public appointments, and the award of honours. Brown has appeared to acknowledge public cynicism in relation to the way governments make appointments. Going forward, he has pledged to play a much reduced role in appointing judges, bishops and peers, all major weapons in the prime ministers armoury of patronage. Browns promise to make his government â€Å"a better servant of the people† appears to be an implicit criticism of his predecessors style of governing. Conservative Leader David Cameron has made similar commitments should he win power at the next general election. The Constitution Unit has broadly welcomed Browns emphasis on diluting prime ministerial power and royal prerogative, but it has been keen to stress that many of the powers proposed for parliament were in fact brand new, and not powers that had necessarily been seized by an over-mighty executive in the past: ‘We welcome many of the proposals in the Green Paper with respect to parliament. These do not ‘restore power to parliament, as was widely reported in the press, but in many cases give power to parliament which it never previously had. We welcome, in particular, the new war powers, the arrangements for greater parliamentary involvement in treaty making and public appointments, the power of recall, and the annual debates on departmental objectives. Gordon Brown appears to have accepted that there has been a constitutional dislocation in the way Britain has been governed in recent years. The key test of his constitutional pledges as outlined in ‘The Governance of Britain will be seen in whether he delivers actions that correlate with his bold, reforming words. Ultimately, the principal challenge will be how future British governments apply the somewhat vague workings of the constitution in a more accountable way. Brown has indicated that the powerful tool of royal prerogative in particular will be significantly curtailed, but asking government ministers to actively sacrifice a mighty power could be difficult to achieve in constitutional practice. Bibliography: G.E Aylmer, ‘The Struggle for the Constitution (1965) Alastair Campbell, ‘The Blair Years (2007) Robert Hazell, ‘Constitution Unit response to The Governance of Britain (July 2007) https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/files/publications/GovernanceResponse.pdf Peter Hitchens, ‘The Abolition of Britain, (1999) Neil McNaughton, ‘Government Politics for A Level, (2nd ed., 2007)

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Internet Censorship Isnt Necessary Essay - 1283 Words

Internet Censorship Isnt Necessary Fear of chaos cannot justify unwarranted censorship of free speech (Quittner). This quotation came from a speech made by Vice President Al Gore, who was addressing the graduating class of 1996 from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This quotation expresses his viewpoint on this subject of censorship. Censorship has always been an issue in the world. What exactly is censorship? A censor is one who is authorized to examine books, films, or other materials and to remove or suppress what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable. Censorship is the act of removing this questionable material. Understandably, it is illegal to yell fire in a crowded room or use†¦show more content†¦This act outlaws obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy or indecent communication on the Internet (Bender). This movement has granted censors the right to pick at the Internet as they please. Unfortunately for society, this act was passed by an admittedly Net-illiterate Congress (Quittner). The problems with the Internet and censorship are caused mainly by the pornographic sites. Parents do not want their children to see smut. To prevent this, many believe that these sites should not be allowed on the Internet. In a society where a photo of a nude, pregnant Demi Moore on the cover of a major magazine is considered acceptable to be seen by millions, it is hard to believe that some of the pictures on the Internet remain unacceptable. Censorship has now found an unwelcome home along the information superhighway. Instead of destroying every site that may appear offensive to some, society needs to look more at preventative measures to stop the viewing of sites by young children and teenagers. This would allow for viewing of these sites by a more mature audience. Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press (First Amendment of the U. S. Constitution). Democracy is based on the idea that only when people are free to express their views openly can they govern themselves effectively (Bender). By not allowing the posting of questionable sites, the Congress is in direct violation of theShow MoreRelatedCensorship Of The World Wide Web1326 Words   |  6 Pagespowerful tool, and too much of it will make any government nervous. Censorship of information has had a long history throughout the world. In ancient China for example, censorship was considered a legitimate instrument for regulating the moral and political life of the population (Newth). Even today, the Chinese government has full authority to censor anything on the web. Western societies also have a long history of censorship. The origin of the term censor can be traced to the office of censorRead MoreEssay on Censorship of Music1406 Words   |  6 PagesCensorship of Music In todays society, all types of music artists are expressing their views, opinions and feelings in their songs about what they see and what they know. This is on of the great things about this country, the freedom to express yourself. It is not fair, nor is it constitutional that music should be censored in anyway. It is not only rap music trying to be censored it is in all types of music. They are taking away their rights and it isnt fair. As reported in the New York TimesRead MoreFeminism and Pornography: Differing Views1221 Words   |  5 Pagesfeminist agenda and this may be because of a division in feminist thought with regards to pornography. Generally speaking, there are â€Å"pro-sex† feminists who believe that women have the right to do what they wish with their bodies and there are â€Å"pro-censorship† feminists who believe pornography is inherently degrading and violent towards women. In this paper I am going to discuss the views and opinions held by each f action of the pornography debate and I will discuss the pros and cons of each view andRead MoreA Brief Note On The Culture Of Terrorism1518 Words   |  7 Pagesworld culture of terrorism that is used by propaganda and censorship to blur the politics of globalization and technology, and restructure a totalitarian society. This paper will argue that the businesses of â€Å"the U.S. media shill factory† (Borjesson, 2004, p.165), the plottings of the â€Å"brand based† (Klein, 2000, P.421) corporations, and the multi-national oil giants influence sectors of government by using deliberate strategies of censorship and propaganda to discredit government effectiveness, alienateRead MoreShould Censorship Be Banned From Social Media Platform?1523 Words   |  7 Pagesbeliefs on social media, can your content get flagged as inappropriate? The answer to both of these questions is yes, and it is blatant censorship. Censorship by definition is â€Å"the suppression or prohibitio n of any parts of books, films, news, etc. that are considered obscene, politically unacceptable, or a threat to security† (Oxford University Press). Censorship regularly imposes certain beliefs on the masses. The practices of suppressing free speech and hindering public communication is extremelyRead MoreThe Debate About Censorship1495 Words   |  6 PagesThe Debate about Censorship Censorship, the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society, has been a characteristic of dictatorships throughout history. In the 20th Century, censorship was achieved through the examination of books, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other forms of communication for the purpose of altering or suppressing ideas found to be objectionable or offensive. There have been assorted justifications for censorship, with some censorsRead MoreFreedom Of The Media And Freedom Of Speech1540 Words   |  7 PagesChina, where â€Å"censorship was considered a legitimate instrument for regulating the moral and political life of the population† (Mette), but this method of governing has a major flaw. Having such a regulated system causes a great amount of distrust and distaste for the government to form within the population and it is evident throughout US history that most americans do not like anyone telling them what they can and cannot do in their own county. Having a strict system of censorship also creates aRead MoreEverybody Knows Big Porn Is Destroying Relationships Essay855 Words   |  4 Pagesaddictive practice for some individuals. Censorship plays a major role in the pornography industry, as with any media outlet, it needs to be regulated. It can be defined as the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society (Global Internet Liberty Campaign, 2013). Since the shift of sexual revolution in the 60’s, there are only two sides to viewing the adult industry; you are either for or against it, there are no fence sitters. Censorship laws act to continually defend those whoRead MoreHow Censorship Is Necessary Or Harmful?2561 Words   |  11 Pages A. Introduction Censorship is a program that has limitations on quite a number of things online. There has always been a sense of divergence with internet users on whether or not censorship is necessary or actually needed. Everyone has their own beliefs. A number of people believe that some things must be censored, while others thinks that everyone must have the freedom to watch anything they wants or search any of the information they want. B. i) Internet growth and evaluation When you come toRead MoreThe Effects Of Internet On The Internet2010 Words   |  9 PagesThe internet is more readily available today than it has even been before; Individuals feel that they can implement their freedom of speech right on the internet as they please. This raises concerns about how we can regulate offensive or harmful forms of speech such as pornography, hate speech. The internet has actually created special problems for censoring and posting materials online. In this paper I will discuss the most feasible way of regulating online content, when to draw the line between

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ten-Foot-Square Hut Free Essays

Zhao Meng Cui Buddhism Professor Broughton Mon 6:45pm-9:45pm Ten-Foot-Square Hut The Ten-Foot Square Hut is more of a story book to me rather than any religion related book. Kamo no Chomei describe the arrival of the mappo is complete chaos. First, there is a huge fire broke out on a windy night in the third year of the Angen era(1177) in the capital city. We will write a custom essay sample on Ten-Foot-Square Hut or any similar topic only for you Order Now The fire was spread widely. Houses were torched; people were chocked to death by smoke or burned to death alive. The result of the fire was â€Å"Sixteen mansions of the nobility were consumed by the fire, to say nothing of untold numbers of other dwellings. Fully one third of the capital was destroyed; several thousand men and women perished. † Second, there is a huge whirlwind hit the capital again in the Jisho ear(1180). Four or five blocks of the city were destroyed. People lost their house, belongings, and lives. The southwestern area next to the city was damaged as well due to the wind moved that way down. Third, the relocation of the capital and changing in politics. New capital was built in a different location up north in the mountain area by the sea. Kamo no chomei was also noticed the persons that he knew were riding on horses like the warrior clans instead of sitting in ox cart. People were still living in the fear of the fire. Fourth, the hunger comes around the Yowa era (1181-1182). Typhoons and floods destroyed farm lands and grain. It lasted 2 years. Many people were dead and grain were worth more than gold. Fifth, earthquake. Kamo no chomei mentioned the destruction of all temples first time. Last, People’s mind changed. People’s desire of wealth grows. They become greedy. This is the arrival of the mappo to Kamo no Chomei. It’s like everything that is known to people were destroyed and the old believes were collapsed. Nothing is going to the right direction. Kamo no chomei’s hut measures ten feet square in area and less than seven feet in height. The eaves extend out three feet for firewood and cooking on the east side. There is also a bamboo balcony with a book shelf at the western side. He put an image of Amida and bodhisattva fugen on the north wall. His bed is along the east side of the room. He kept his music instruments and other books at the southwest corner. Nembutsu was his Bhuddhist practice. His problem was that he loved his small hut and the simple life style. His small hut help him with practice, but it is still consider as mental grasping. â€Å"Buddha warn us against feelings of attachment. † He is still attached to something that would keep him in the samsara. His solutions to his problem are â€Å"call upon my tongue to utter two or three recitations of Amida Buddha’s name, ineffectual as they might be, before falling silent. † My understanding is that he would first do more Buddhist practices as mentioned above â€Å"utter two or three recitations of Amida Buddha’s name†; secondly, easy his mind and meditate as in â€Å"falling silent†. How to cite Ten-Foot-Square Hut, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Subcultures free essay sample

Us vestures Culture plays a very important role in continuing values and norms of society. We know that people are different each other and our society also offers lots of opportunities for people to be creative. These creative people become a cultural subgroup outside the core of the dominant culture and they are called a subculture. A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong.According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word subculture is defined s a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members Of the dominant culture.They are closely linked to ideology and mainstream. We will write a custom essay sample on Subcultures or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Music-based subcultures are particularly vulnerable to this process, and so what may be considered a subculture at one stage in its history may represent mainstream taste within short period of time. Several subcultures flourished and are flourishing today around the world. However, one of the most famous and influential subculture that has impacted UK in terms of beliefs, lifestyle, music, and art, has been Skinheads and Moods.Skinheads (or shaved heads), are members of the subculture that originated in the 1 9605 in the working-class neighborhoods of London, where they were closely attached to the Rude boys and the British Moods. They rejected the youthful counterculture movement and many skinheads were prone to violence, others viewed their picture primarily as an expression of alternative values and communal solidarity and were more interested in parties, concerts, and sporting events than in violence.During the sass and ass the skinhead movement spread to North America, and western Europe, especially Germany. The Skinhead culture had certain elements that distinguished them from others. They dressed themselves with bottom up Fred Perry or Ben Sherman polo shirts, fitted blazer or Herrington Jackets, Tight Levi Jeans and Dry Martins work boots. Alt hough the first skin heads were nonpolitical, many of them were non drawn into extreme nationalist, and especially anti-immigrant, groups. Skinheads expressed their political ideas and also their racism in their music as well as in their street violence. Although many early skinheads favored reggae, later skinhead musical groups produced a variety of punk that focused on street issues. Instead, Mod (this term derives from modernist or modern) is one of the social subculture that originated from London in the late sass. The most important element Of the Mod subculture is fashion. The Moods still need to maintain their perfection of personal style and fashion. They dressed themselves with suits and parka coats.The music associated with MOD culture is Northern soul, Rhythm and Blues and British music including bands such as The Who, The Kinks and The Small Faces. But, the main symbol of Mod culture is the scooter such as the Lambert or the VESA. Many Moods used a scooters for transportation and they treated the vehicle as a fashion accessory. Moods were famed for having never ending conflict with the Rockers, referring to them as greasers. The original mod scene was also associated with amphetamine and all night dancing at clubs.Several subcultures are flourishing today, but when we think of the most of the popular new subculture, I think of Memos. The Memo (this term derives from emotion) subculture consists of youths that express emotions that they can relate to. This subculture started in the mid-1 9805. Memo has been widely associated with a stereotype that includes being particularly emotional, sensitive and shy along with been associated with depression, self-injury, and suicide. Memo is often stereotyped with wearing tight fitted clothes and long hair that covers one or both eyes.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Catcher In The Rye Essays (470 words) - Literary Realism

Catcher In The Rye Does the Voice Matter? How important is the voice that tells a story? It seems almost trivial to claim that the same story can change because of the voice telling it to you. Does the voice and point of view of the narrator play a large enough role in a novel to change the attitude of the reader about the novel? J.D.. Salinger uses the dominant character of Holden Caulfield to be the first person narrator of his novel The Catcher in the Rye. The key to Holden's narrative voice is the fact that it added life and a connection to the character. This voice transforms an otherwise lifeless story to a jump start and electric novel. In order to find out how important this narrator was to the story we will compare the novel The Catcher in the Rye to the piece "A Slight Rebellion of Madison"(the summary of the very same novel as told in third person omniscient). In looking at the importance of Holden's role we will first look at the summary of the novel. In "Slight Rebellion off Madison" the character of Holden Caulfield has been eliminated and an outside third person narrator replaces him. This version goes through the story explaining the basic outlining of The Catcher in the Rye. The outline is what the summary gives to the reader and that's all it gives. The basic plot is average, but with out the connection to the reader it keeps the reader on the outside through the whole thing. The plot tells the happenings of a young man named Holden Caulfield, but without really knowing to much about the character of Holden the plot line is lifeless and boring for the reader. We see the experiences that Holden goes through, but the reader doesn't get involved. It is hard for most readers to sympathize with Holden therefore Salinger relies on the connection Holden makes with the reader to get the reader involved in the life of Holden. What about Holden's narrative voice causes such a giant impact on the novel? I s it his loud personality or just that the reader is allowed to but put in the position as his best friend. Salinger starts the novel right away with Holden trying to relate to the reader. "If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you'll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don't feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth." Throughout the entire novel Holden uses slang and swear words to give the reader a more familiar feeling to him. Salinger makes it seem as though Holden is confiding everything to the reader. this is the key to the novel and why it is more than a simple story line.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on Influential Leaders Of World War II

Influential Leaders of World War II In the 1930’s when two large dictatorships, the communists of Russia and the fascists of Germany, were attempting take over the Europe, most Americans hoped that they would battle it out between themselves eventually neutralizing other. This hope was unfortunately decimated when the two dictatorships formed the Nazi-Soviet pact on August 23, 1939. This pact was shortly followed by the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 and the world went to war for the second time in twenty seven years. The occurrence of another major world conflict, so shortly after what was believed to be ‘the war that will end war,’ could be devastating to a county that was still suffering from the loss of so many loved ones in the previous war. The war also meant that the country might possibly be able to recover from the economic hardships placed on it by the Great Depression. World War II involved more than two hundred countries, cost fifty five millions lives, and produced material damage of some three billion dollars. This major world conflict also involved some the world’s most influential leaders. World War II involved some the world’s most influential leaders including, the Big Three: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and also Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Some of these men were not the best or moral of men, but certainly very influential during the twentieth century. President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was attempting to pull his country out of the economic depression that was upon it during the years leading up to World War II. His plan for the country was The New Deal which involved such programs as social security, welfare, income tax, loans, and he also formed the first Democratic Party. When problems first arose in Europe FDR was adamant about keeping the country out of another European conflict. Although he did not want the country directly involv... Free Essays on Influential Leaders Of World War II Free Essays on Influential Leaders Of World War II Influential Leaders of World War II In the 1930’s when two large dictatorships, the communists of Russia and the fascists of Germany, were attempting take over the Europe, most Americans hoped that they would battle it out between themselves eventually neutralizing other. This hope was unfortunately decimated when the two dictatorships formed the Nazi-Soviet pact on August 23, 1939. This pact was shortly followed by the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 and the world went to war for the second time in twenty seven years. The occurrence of another major world conflict, so shortly after what was believed to be ‘the war that will end war,’ could be devastating to a county that was still suffering from the loss of so many loved ones in the previous war. The war also meant that the country might possibly be able to recover from the economic hardships placed on it by the Great Depression. World War II involved more than two hundred countries, cost fifty five millions lives, and produced material damage of some three billion dollars. This major world conflict also involved some the world’s most influential leaders. World War II involved some the world’s most influential leaders including, the Big Three: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and also Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Some of these men were not the best or moral of men, but certainly very influential during the twentieth century. President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was attempting to pull his country out of the economic depression that was upon it during the years leading up to World War II. His plan for the country was The New Deal which involved such programs as social security, welfare, income tax, loans, and he also formed the first Democratic Party. When problems first arose in Europe FDR was adamant about keeping the country out of another European conflict. Although he did not want the country directly involv...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Bioinformatics and molecular modelling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Bioinformatics and molecular modelling - Essay Example Plant lipases are often considered to be involved in regulating certain plant growths and developments (Bos and Laxminarayan, 2011; 42). They are mainly found in seeds where triglycerides are stored in the form of intracellular structures or the oil bodies. Lipases usually hydrolyze triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol that produces energy needed for seed germination. The plant lapses are usually classified into three main groups with the first group consisting of the triacylglycerol hydrolases that are mainly found in seeds. Their study is vital since they are responsible for seed alteration especially during storage. The second group is the acylhydrolases that are found in various plant tissues. They often exhibit limited specificity for their substrates; therefore, they are unable to hydrolyze triglycerides. However, they are cable to catalyze some esterification processes or reactions (Appel and Feytmans, 2009; p. 68). The profound acylhydrolases include phospholipases A and B, sulfolipases, glycolipases, and monoglyceride lipases. The last group in this category is the phosphorlipases that involve plant metabolism, degradation, and rearrangement. Other than the above classification, the recent studies have led to different classification of lipases based on comparison of the sequences of their amino acid among other fundamental biological and physicochemical properties (Gupta, 2007; 34). This modern classification led to eleven subfamilies. Despite being a member of many protein families, the lipases often have similar architecture that is described by the ?-hydrolase fold. The activities of all lipases often rely on the catalytic triad that is usually fromed by the Asp, Ser, and His residues. In the sequence of the amino acid especially involving ?/? hydrolases, these three residues often follow the user-Asp-His order. Additionally, lipases often share the consensus sequence defined by the Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly where X may be a residue of an amino acid (Bos and Laxminarayan, 2011; p. 33). The three dimensional structure of any protein molecule often provides valuable insight into the molecular function, organization, docking stimulation, and the effective designing of drug experiments. The lack of an experimentally determined crystal structure, the homology modeling may be used to provide an opportunity in obtaining a reasonable 3D model. Currently, the 3D models often provide a perfect means of predicting the structure of biomolecules since it yields models that are suitable for a wide application spectrum that are structurally based thereby providing molecular design for mechanism investigation. The 3D approach is capable of providing a reasonable structure model that is often related to template that shares more than 25 percent sequence identity. An Arabidopsis thaliana lipase model is greatly proposed to investigate the model organism mainly in the plant biology since it is relatively small and and it is genetically tractable genome. Methods The Target and Template Proteins The model is perfect in determining adequate template for the homology modeling for the Arabidopsis thaliana. This sequence allows the alignment of amino acid sequence against the protein data bank (PDB) and this is performed by means of BLAST algorithm. According to the sequence algorithm, both the template (1HLG) and the target share 31 percent of the sequence identity.